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Showing posts with label Indo Politics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Indo Politics. Show all posts

Thursday, 19 November 2020

400 Akun Palsu Bahasa Belanda, Inggris dan Jerman Menyebarkan Propaganda Papua di Belanda

 

Akun mediso sosial. (Ilustrasi Forbes).

JAYAPURA, SUARAPAPUA.com— Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS), salah satu media online yang berbasis di Belanda melaporkan bahwa lebih dari empat ratus (400) akun palsu memposting dan menyebarkan propaganda tentang Papua Barat di Twitter, Facebook, Instagram dan YouTube.

Hal itu disebut NOS sebagai tentara Bot Indonesia, yang mana dalam setiap laporannya dan postingannya bahwa mereka (tentara bot) bersikeras supaya Papua Barat agar tidak merdeka.

Tentara bot menyebarkan propaganda tentang Papua Barat di Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, dan YouTube. Ini menyangkut lebih dari empat ratus akun palsu yang memposting pesan di media sosial dalam bahasa Belanda, Jerman, Inggris, dan Indonesia.

Jika menemukan papilloma seperti ini, waspadalah!

“Di hampir setiap laporan mereka bersikeras bahwa Papua Barat tidak boleh merdeka. Sebaliknya, mereka menunjuk terkait otonomi khusus untuk provinsi tersebut,” kata sumber yang mengakui guru Peter Burger dari Universitas Leiden, yang menemukan akun palsu tersebut sebagaimana dilansir dari NOS Belanda, Selasa (10/11/2020).

Papua Barat telah memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Indonesia selama setengah abad, tetapi pemerintah Indonesia mendorong perpanjangan undang-undang otonomi pada tahun 2021. Pemerintah malah menindak pemrotes dari orang Papua.

Menurut pakar berita palsu Burger, bot adalah bukti pertama yang terlihat di negara kita tentang pengaruh politik terkoordinasi dari luar negeri yang menggunakan pesan berbahasa Belanda.

Menteri Kajsa Ollongren telah memperingatkan terhadap kampanye semacam itu di platform media sosial untuk beberapa waktu, tetapi hanya mengutip situs berita palsu Rusia yang menyebarkan disinformasi tentang MH17.

 Kolektif penelitian Bellingcat juga menemukan hal serupa di Indonesia pada tahun lalu, yang sebagian besar menyebarkan pesan dalam bahasa Inggris dan Indonesia. Akun palsu telah dihapus oleh platform media social, tetapi kampanye pengaruh rahasia baru belum terdeteksi oleh perusahaan teknologi.


Akun palsu dengan foto palsu

Sekitar setengah dari empat ratus akun aktif di Twitter, foto profil yang dimiliki akun, 35 foto – dari sampel seratus foto – tampaknya telah disusun oleh komputer, catat 3DUniversum, perusahaan Amsterdam. Jadi orang-orang di foto itu tidak ada.

Foto palsu semacam itu adalah fenomena yang relatif baru. Orang-orang yang ada pada foto profil berpenampilan orang barat, namun ternyata sekitar 70 persen tweet tersebut dikirim dari server di Papua dan daerah lain di Indonesia. Jika melihat statistik, jumlah tweet benar-benar runtuh di Indonesia.

“Saya hanya bisa memikirkan satu pihak yang mendapat manfaat dari pesan-pesan ini dan itu adalah pemerintah Indonesia,” kata aktivis Raki Ap.

Dia berjuang dari Belanda untuk kemerdekaan Papua Barat dan menyebut laporan tentara bot “mengejutkan dan brutal”. Meskipun ada permintaan berulang kali oleh Kedutaan Besar Indonesia yang tidak menanggapi.

Tentara bot dipetakan

Nieuwsuur memiliki tentara bot yang dipetakan di Twitter oleh Universitas Amsterdam. Sebagian besar akun telah dibuat sejak Juni. Akun tersebut telah memposting hampir 45.000 tweet, 12.000 di antaranya dalam bahasa Belanda.

Oleh karena itu, dampak dari tentara bot dapat disebut kecil. Twitter telah menghapus sekitar setengah dari akun palsu akhir pekan ini, setelah ditunjukkan oleh Nieuwsuur. Namun, sementara itu, tampaknya puluhan akun palsu baru telah dibuat.

Platform ini memiliki kampanye pengaruh ke negara negara. Facebook telah menghapus contoh yang diberikan oleh Nieuwsuur dan tiga akun lain yang ditemukan oleh platform itu sendiri.

“Kami telah mengambil tindakan terhadap sejumlah akun yang melanggar kebijakan kami,” kata seorang juru bicara. Sementara Facebook masih mengerjakan penelitian lebih lanjut. Namun, lebih dari 150 akun bot di Facebook, dan Instagram belum terdeteksi oleh platform itu sendiri.

Semua akun bot sekarang dapat ditemukan di ikhtisar ini.

 YouTube mengatakan sebagai tanggapan bahwa moderator platform masih menyelidiki video yang diposting oleh akun palsu tersebut.

“Kami akan mengambil tindakan yang sesuai jika kami menemukan pelanggaran terhadap aturan YouTube.”

 


Editor: Elisa Sekenyap

Friday, 1 November 2019

Investigation reveals disinformation campaigns on Papuan issues

Kharishar Kahfi - The Jakarta Post


Shouting Papua Merdeka, after High School
Students in Wamena were Shot by
Indonesian police and army
A recent digital forensic investigation has revealed that multiple attempts have taken place in the digital world to manipulate the narrative about the protests and riots in the Papua and West Papua provinces in favor of the Indonesian government.

The joint investigation, launched by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI), found at least two online influence campaigns had been “disseminating pro-Indonesian government material on the issue of West Papua”.

The Papua issue refers to widespread protests against the racial abuse suffered by Papuans, which eventually led to riots. The first of the recent incidents of abuse occurred in August in Surabaya, East Java, which triggered protests in some cities, including in Jakarta.

The second abuse allegedly occurred in Papua, where a non-native teacher at a local high school reportedly called a native student a “monkey”. The incident sparked protests and violence on Sept. 23 when mobs, reportedly made up of native Papuans, set buildings and vehicles on fire. Thirty-three people, mostly non-natives, were killed during the riots.

The Indonesian authorities claimed they limited internet access in Papua during the riots in the hope of curbing the spread of fake news. However, the digital forensic investigation found otherwise.

The findings about the manipulative narrative were made by BBC open source investigator Benjamin Strick and ASPI’s international cyber-policy center researcher Elise Thomas. The report was also published online by a United Kingdom-based investigative group Bellingcat on Oct. 11.

“The goal of both campaigns was to influence international opinion about the increasingly violent situation in West Papua, as Indonesian security forces crack down on the local pro-independence movement,” Strick and Thomas wrote in the report.

The team revealed the first campaign was operated by InsightID, an Indonesian communications firm. According to the report, the firm had been promoting pro-Indonesian government content on various websites and social media accounts aimed at international audiences.

During the campaign, the firm was also found to have targeted an opposition hashtag to influence its followers with pro-Indonesian and anti-independence content, as well as actively harass people who publicly supported independence or were reporting information that contradicted the government’s narrative on the situation in Papua.

“We have not found evidence to identify the client who has hired InsightID to run this information campaign,” Strick and Thomas wrote.

“However, based on the available facts we can conclude the client is a party which is able to spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to run a ‘fake news’ information operation with the goal of influencing the international community’s political perceptions in favor of the Indonesian government’s actions in West Papua,” they added.

Findings about InsightID had been separately confirmed by Facebook, which issued a statement earlier this month saying it had identified and removed dozens of accounts and pages suspected of committing coordinated inauthentic behavior in Indonesia, primarily sharing content mainly undermining the West Papuan independence movement.

Facebook eventually found links to a local media firm, InsightID, which was said to be spending about US$300,000 on Facebook ads, mostly paid in Indonesian rupiah.

A group claiming to be InsightID later responded to the statement, saying the group worked to counter what it claimed was massive amounts of biased disinformation disseminated by the Papuan separatist movement.

“Our content is focused on messages of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika [Unity in Diversity], the unity of Indonesia and the optimistic efforts of Indonesia to resolve the problems in Papua,” it said in a statement.

The team also found a separate and smaller campaign running on the similar topic of West Papua. This one includes three “brands”, each of which has its own website and social media accounts: Wawawa Journal (WJ), Tell the Truth NZ and Noken Insight.

A notable example of an action undertaken by the campaign was the promotion of a statement attributed to United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres saying he supported the Indonesian government over the brouhaha in Papua. Later, it was found that the statement had been fabricated.

Some content spread in the campaign smeared several international media outlets based in Australia and New Zealand, including the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Moreover, it also targeted people who spoke out about the Papuan issue, including human rights lawyer Veronica Koman and United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP) chairman Benny Wenda.

One of the domains used in the second campaign was registered by Muhamad Rosyid Jazuli, who had worked since 2014 in an organization called the Jenggala Center. The organization was originally a supporter of Joko “Jokowi” Widodo and Jusuf Kalla when the pair ran in the 2014 presidential election.

Jazuli admitted to the team his responsibility for the Wawawa Journal and Tell the Truth NZ, while denying knowledge of Noken Insight despite evidence that the WJ Facebook page once used Noken Insight’s brand as its cover photo.

“Jazuli [said] that the sites and profiles were created on his own initiative by himself and friends, using personal money and were not related to his work with the Jenggala Center,” the report said.

It added that he claimed the campaigns were simply attempts to counter negative Western media coverage, rather than being propaganda or “fake news”.

Online influence campaigns are still common in Indonesia, according to a report by Oxford Internet Institute director Philip Howard and researcher Samanta Bradshaw entitled “2019 Global Inventory of Organised Social Media Manipulation”.

The report listed Indonesia as among the 70 countries it found to have organized social media manipulation for shaping public opinions, deeming it a threat to democracy.

The report said the existence of cybertroops and computational propaganda in Indonesia was aimed at spreading pro-government or pro-party propaganda, attacking opposition or mounting smear campaigns, as well as driving division and polarization.

Report finds anti-Papua 'fake news' campaign

Kharishar Kahfi. The Jakarta Post

A recent digital forensic investigation has revealed that multiple attempts have taken place in the digital world to manipulate the narrative about the protests and riots in the Papua and West Papua provinces in favor of the Indonesian government.

The joint investigation, launched by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI), found at least two online influence campaigns had been “disseminating pro-Indonesian government material on the issue of West Papua”.

The Papua issue refers to widespread protests against the racial abuse suffered by Papuans, which eventually led to riots.

The findings about the manipulative narrative were made by BBC open source investigator Benjamin Strick and ASPI’s international cyberpolicy center researcher Elise Thomas. The report was also published online by a United Kingdom-based investigative group Bellingcat on Oct. 11.

“The goal of both campaigns was to influence international opinion about the increasingly violent situation in West Papua, as Indonesian security forces crack down on the local pro-independence movement,” Strick and Thomas wrote in the report.

The team revealed the first campaign was operated by InsightID, an Indonesian communications firm. According to the report, the firm had been promoting pro-Indonesian government content on various websites and social media accounts aimed at international audiences.

During the campaign, the firm was also found to have targeted an opposition hashtag to influence its followers with pro-Indonesian and anti-independence content, as well as actively harass people who publicly supported independence or were reporting information that contradicted the government’s narrative on the situation in Papua.

“We have not found evidence to identify the client who has hired InsightID to run this information campaign,” Strick and Thomas wrote.

“However, based on the available facts we can conclude the client is a party which is able to spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to run a ‘fake news’ information operation with the goal of influencing the international community’s political perceptions in favor of the Indonesian government’s actions in West Papua,” they added.

Findings about InsightID had been separately confirmed by Facebook, which issued a statement earlier this month saying it had identified and removed dozens of accounts and pages suspected of committing coordinated inauthentic behavior in Indonesia, primarily sharing content mainly undermining the West Papuan independence movement.

A group claiming to be InsightID later responded to the statement, saying the group worked to counter what it claimed was massive amounts of biased disinformation disseminated by the Papuan separatist movement.

The team also found a separate and smaller campaign running on the similar topic of West Papua. This one includes three “brands”, each of which has its own website and social media accounts: Wawawa Journal (WJ), Tell the Truth NZ and Noken Insight.

A notable example of an action undertaken by the campaign was the promotion of a statement attributed to United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres saying he supported the Indonesian government over the brouhaha in Papua. Later, it was found that the statement had been fabricated.

Some content spread in the campaign smeared several international media outlets based in Australia and New Zealand, including the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Moreover, it also targeted people who spoke out about the Papuan issue, including human rights lawyer Veronica Koman and United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP) chairman Benny Wenda.

One of the domains used in the second campaign was registered by Muhamad Rosyid Jazuli, who had worked since 2014 in an organization called the Jenggala Center. The organization was originally a supporter of Joko “Jokowi” Widodo and Jusuf Kalla when the pair ran in the 2014 presidential election.

Jazuli admitted to the team his responsibility for the WJ and Tell the Truth NZ, while denying knowledge of Noken Insight despite evidence that the WJ Facebook page once used Noken Insight’s brand as its cover photo.

“Jazuli [said] that the sites and profiles were created on his own initiative by himself and friends, using personal money and were not related to his work with the Jenggala Center,” the report said.

It added that he claimed the campaigns were simply attempts to counter negative Western media coverage, rather than being propaganda or “fake news”.

Thursday, 26 September 2019

Veronica Koman di Antara Intervensi PBB & Kriminalisasi Pegiat HAM

Oleh: Adi Briantika - Tirto

Status Veronica Koman dipertanyakan PBB. Aparat dinilai salah urus karena mengkriminalisasi pegiat HAM. tirto.id - Pengacara dan aktivis HAM yang banyak mengadvokasi isu-isu Papua, Veronica Koman, kini statusnya resmi tersangka dengan pasal berlapis. Rekeningnya diblokir, dan bahkan paspornya hendak dicabut--konsekuensinya dia bisa diusir dari negara tempat ia sementara bermukim.

Vero jadi tersangka karena dituduh menyebar berita bohong dan konten provokatif terkait penyerangan dan pengepungan Asrama Mahasiswa Papua di Surabaya pada 16 Agustus lalu.

Kelak, penyerangan yang dilakukan oleh ormas dan aparat resmi ini memicu demonstrasi besar-besaran di Tanah Papua.

Kasus Vero terus bergulir, dibicarakan banyak orang dan media massa, dan akhirnya ditanggapi oleh Kantor Komisaris Tinggi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa untuk Hak Asasi Manusia atau Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), badan PBB yang bekerja untuk mempromosikan dan melindungi HAM di seluruh dunia.

Para ahli dalam badan itu mengkritik sikap aparat terhadap Vero. Mereka menilai Indonesia semestinya melindungi hak pembela HAM seperti Vero.

“Kami mendesak [pemerintah Indonesia] untuk segera bertindak melindungi Veronica Koman dari intimidasi dan berbagai tuduhan terhadapnya. Agar ia bisa terus melaporkan secara independen tentang situasi HAM di negara ini," kata mereka di Jenewa, Senin (16/9/2019).

Baca juga: Benarkah Langkah Polisi Telusuri Rekening Veronica Koman?

Para ahli yang berkomentar di antaranya: Clement Nyaletsossi Voule, David Kaye, Dubravka Šimonović, Meskerem Geset Techane, dan Michel Forst.

Bagi mereka, Vero tengah mengalami pembatasan kebebasan berekspresi, dan itu membahayakan keselamatan para pembela HAM.

Di satu sisi, pada 16 Maret 2017 lalu, polisi sebetulnya berjanji “mengupayakan pengarusutamaan HAM di lingkungan kepolisian.” Ini tertuang dalam Nota Kesepakatan Nomor 003/NKBKH/III/2017 dan nomor B/25/III/2017 antara Polri dengan Komnas HAM. MoU tersebut diteken langsung oleh Kapolri Jenderal Tito Karnavian.

Para ahli di PBB juga meminta pemerintah Indonesia tidak menyelesaikan konflik di Papua dengan bedil dan kekerasan, tapi lewat dialog yang tulus dengan para pengunjuk rasa, termasuk mereka yang ingin merdeka.

Kepala Bidang Humas Polda Jawa Timur Kombes Pol Frans Barung Mangera lantas membalas desakan tersebut dengan mengatakan PBB terlalu ikut campur urusan Indonesia. Dan karenanya merusak kedaulatan negara ini. Karena itu dia memilih tak menghiraukannya.

“Enggak ada intervensi. Hukum di Indonesia mempunyai kedaulatan sendiri,” kata Barung, Rabu (18/9/2019), seperti dikutip dari Kompas. Baca juga: Pemerintah Blokir Internet di Wamena Papua Usai Kericuhan Tapi desakan tersebut sebetulnya bukan intervensi, demikian kesimpulan Manajer Kampanye Amnesty International Indonesia Puri Kencana Putri.

Indonesia, kata Puri kepada reporter Tirto, Jumat (20/9/2019), “terikat untuk memenuhi kewajiban” penegakan HAM karena negara ini meratifikasi dokumen internasional terkait HAM. Sejauh ini Indonesia sudah meratifikasi tujuh instrumen HAM internasional. Salah satunya adalah Kovenan Hak-Hak Sipil dan Politik. “Indonesia juga terikat untuk memenuhi rekomendasi dari universal periodic review putaran ketiga pada Mei 2017. Di sana kebebasan berekspresi dan akuntabilitas sektor keamanan--termasuk di dalamnya polisi untuk memenuhi HAM--diatur dan diwajibkan,” tutur Puri.

Bisa saja polisi berkilah kalau mereka sudah melakukan semuanya berdasarkan standar internal, kata Puri. Tapi peraturan itu bisa dianggap inkonsisten dengan peraturan lain yang ada di atasnya.

Apa yang terjadi terhadap Vero, kata Puri, bisa menjadi catatan serius ketika Indonesia melalui Menteri Luar Negeri mencari dukungan untuk masuk pada putaran dewan HAM PBB tahun 2020-2022.

Baca juga: Veronica Koman Sebut Polisi Menyalahgunakan Wewenang soal Kasusnya

Peran Penting Veronica

Direktur LBH Papua Emanuel Gobay menyatakan peran Vero sangat besar terhadap Papua.

Yang dikerjakan Vero, salah satunya lewat cuitan-cuitannya di Twitter, juga merupakan kritik terhadap kebebasan pers semu di Bumi Cenderawasih. Gobay mengatakan banyak media tidak bisa menyampaikan situasi Papua yang sebetulnya karena akses yang terbatas.

Lewat Vero, kata Gobay, publik jadi tahu apa yang terjadi. “Yang ia sampaikan adalah bagian dari fakta Papua,” kata Gobay kepada reporter Tirto, Senin (23/9/2019).

Hal senada diungkapkan advokat dari Perkumpulan Advokasi Hak Asasi Manusia Papua, Gustaf Kawer. Kepada reporter Tirto, Senin (23/9/2019), ia memuji Vero sebagai penyambung lidah Papua dengan publik karena perannya yang tidak hanya mengabarkan informasi, tapi juga advokat.

“Saya pikir kita butuh tenaga yang cukup, karena pelanggaran HAM di Papua sampai ke pelosok. Butuh tenaga, termasuk pengacara,” kata Gustaf.

Baca juga: VIDEO: Polisi Gagal Mengatasi Rasisme di Asrama Mahasiswa Papua

Vero juga telah bicara panjang lebar terkait statusnya lewat Facebook, Sabtu 14 September 2019. Dia mengatakan aparat tengah membunuh karakternya sebagai pengacara, juga telah menyalahgunakan wewenang dengan mengkriminalisasinya.
Vero juga mengatakan aparat dan pemerintah tidak kompeten menyelesaikan konflik berkepanjangan di Papua. Dan untuk menutupi itu mereka mencari kambing hitam. Vero merasa sekarang dialah kambing hitam itu.

“Secara terang benderang, kita melihat metode ‘shoot the messenger’ sedang dilakukan aparat untuk kasus ini. Ketika tidak mampu dan tidak mau mengusut pelanggaran/ kejahatan HAM yang ada, maka serang saja si penyampai pesan itu,” katanya .

Baca juga artikel terkait KONFLIK PAPUA atau tulisan menarik lainnya Adi Briantika (tirto.id - Hukum)

Reporter: Adi Briantika
Penulis: Adi Briantika
Editor: Abdul Aziz

Baca selengkapnya di artikel "Veronica Koman di Antara Intervensi PBB & Kriminalisasi Pegiat HAM", https://tirto.id/eitC

Wednesday, 18 September 2019

Thousands of West Papuan students return home over safety fears

Over 2000 West Papuan university students have returned home from Indonesian cities since last month over safety fears.

Protesters march in Jayapura. Photo: Whens Tebay
Racist harassment of Papuan students in university dormitories in Javanese cities last month sparked weeks of widespread protests and unrest in Papua.

While Indonesian police have started investigations into the harassment, many students claim they continue to face threats and feel unsafe.

As of Monday, 2047 students had been recorded by Papua's provincial government as having left their studies to return to their home region since August.

The majority of the students are from Highlands regencies in Papua.

Last month, in response to the harassment, Papua's Governor Lukas Enembe offered support to students who wished to return home from Java.